The ABCs of How We Learn: 26 Scientifically Proven Approaches, How They Work, and When to Use Them.  Daniel L. Schwartz, Jessica M. Tsang, & Kristen P. Blair. W. W. Norton.

A comparison of two methods of active learning in physics: Inventing a general solution versus compare and contrast.  Doris B. Chin, Min Chi, & Daniel L. Schwartz.  Instructional Science.

Got game? A choice-based learning assessment of data literacy and visualization skills.  Doris B. Chin, Kristen P. Blair, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Technology, Knowledge, and Learning.

Commentary: The half-empty question for socio-cognitive interventions. Daniel L. Schwartz, Katherine M. Cheng, Shima Salehi, & Carl Wieman.  Journal of Educational Psychology.

Preparation for future learning: A missing competency in health professions education?  M. Mylopoulos, R. Bydges, N.N. Woods, J. Manzone, & D.L. Schwartz.   Medical Education. 


Posterlet: A game-based assessment of children’s choices to seek feedback and to revise. Maria Cutumisu, Kristen P. Blair, Doris B. Chin, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of Learning Analytics, Vol 2, Issue 1, 49–71.

Learning to “See” Less Than Nothing: Putting Perceptual Skills to Work for Learning Numerical Structure. Jessica M. Tsang, Kristen P. Blair, Laura Bofferding, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Cognition and Instruction. DOI: 10.1080/07370008.2015.1038539

Seeking the general explanation: A test of inductive activities for learning and transfer. Jonathan T. Shemwell, Catherine C. Chase, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Learning as coordination: Cognitive psychology and education. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Robert Goldstone. In L. Corno & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology, 3rd edition.


Give your ideas some legs: The positive effect of walking on creative thinking. Oppezzo, M., & Schwartz, D. L. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition. DOI: 10.1037/a0036577

A pragmatic perspective on visual representation and creative thinking. Martin, L., & Schwartz., D. L. Visual Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1472586X.2014.862997


Experience and explanation: Using videogames to prepare students for formal instruction in statistics. Dylan Arena, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of Science Education and Technology.

The Bundling Hypothesis: How Perception and Culture Give Rise to Abstract Mathematical Concepts in Individuals. Kristen P. Blair, Jessica M. Tsang, & Daniel L. Schwartz. International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change, 2nd Edition.

Young Children Can Learn Scientific Reasoning with Teachable Agents.** Doris B. Chin, Ilsa M. Dohmen, & Daniel L. Schwartz. IEEE TLT special issue, Learning Systems for Science and Technology Education.

Learning by Teaching Human Pupils and Teachable Agents: The Importance of Recursive Feedback. Sandra Y. Okita, & Daniel L. Schwartz. The Journal of the Learning Sciences.

Measuring What Matters Most: Choice-Based Assessments for the Digital Age. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Dylan Arena. The MIT Press.


How to build educational neuroscience: Two approaches with concrete instances. Daniel L. Schwartz, Kristen P. Blair, & Jessica Tsang. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

Resisting overzealous transfer: Coordinating previously successful routines with needs for new learning. Daniel L. Schwartz, Catherine C. Chase, & John D. Bransford. Educational Psychologist.

A value of concrete learning materials in adolescence. Kristen P. Blair, & Daniel L. Schwartz. In Reyna, V. F., Chapman, S., Dougherty, M., & Confrey, J. (Eds.), The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning and decision making.

Beyond natural numbers: Negative number representation in parietal cortex. Kristen P. Blair, Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Jessica M. Tsang, Daniel L. Schwartz, & Vinod Menon. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.


The mental representation of integers: An abstract-to-concrete shift in the understanding of mathematical concepts. Sashank Varma, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Cognition.

Practicing versus inventing with contrasting cases: The effects of telling first on learning and transfer. Daniel L. Schwartz, Catherine C. Chase, Marily A. Oppezzo, & Doris B. Chin. In press. Journal of Education Psychology.


Parallel Prototyping Leads to Better Design Results, More Divergence, and Increased Self-Efficacy. Steven P. Dow, Alana Glassco, Jonathan Kass, Melissa Schwarz, Daniel L. Schwartz, & Scott R. Klemmer. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction.

Preparing students for future learning with Teachable Agents. Doris B. Chin, Ilsa M. Dohmen, Britte H. Cheng, Marily A. Oppezzo, Catherine C. Chase, & Daniel L. Schwartz. In press. Educational Technology Research & Development.


Choice-based assessments for the digital age. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Dylan Arena. White paper for the MacArthur Foundation.

Teachable agents and the protege effect: Increasing the effort towards learning. Catherine Chase, Doris B. Chin, Marily Oppezzo, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of Science Education and Technology.

Prospective adaptation in the use of external representations. Lee Martin, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Cognition & Instruction.

Constructivism in an age of non-constructivist assessments. Daniel L. Schwartz, Robb Lindgren, & Sarah Lewis. In T. Duffy & S. Tobias (Eds.), Constructivist instruction: Success or failure.

Interactive metacognition: Monitoring and regulating a teachable agent. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of Metacognition in Education.


Scientific and pragmatic challenges for bridging education and neuroscience. Sashank Varma, Bruce McCandliss, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Educational Researcher.

How should educational neuroscience conceptualize the relation between cognition and brain function? Mathematical reasoning as a network process. Sashank Varma, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Educational Research.

Dynamic Transfer and Innovation. Daniel L. Schwartz, Sashank Varma, & Lee Martin. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change.

Instrumentation and Innovation in Design Experiments: Taking the Turn to Efficiency. Daniel L. Schwartz, Jammie Chang, & Lee Martin. In A. Kelly & R. Lesh (Eds.), Design research methods in education.


Intercultural adaptive expertise: Explicit and implicit lessons from Dr. Hatano. Xiaodong Lin, Daniel L. Schwartz, & John D. Bransford. Human Development.

It’s a homerun! Using mathematical discourse to support the learning of statistics. Kathy Himmelberger, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Mathematics Teacher.

The Mere Belief of Social Interaction Improves Learning. Sandra Okita, Jeremy Bailenson, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Cognitive Science Conference (2007).

Animations of thought: Interactivity in the teachable agents paradigm. Schwartz, D. L., Pilner, K. B., Biswas, G., Leelawong, K., & Davis, J. In R. Lowe & W.Schnotz (Eds.), Learning with Animation: Research and Implications for Design. UK: Cambridge University Press.

It is not television anymore: Designing digital video for learning and assessment. Daniel L. Schwartz, & K. Hartman. In R. Goldman, R. P Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences.

Pedagogical agents for learning by teaching: Teachable Agents. Kristen Blair, Daniel L. Schwartz, Gautam Biswas, & Krittaya Leelawong. Educational Technology.

Reconsidering prior knowledge. Daniel L. Schwartz, David Sears, & Jammie Chang. In M. Lovett & P. Shah (Eds.), Thinking with Data. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


It takes expertise to make expertise: Some thoughts about why and how and Reflections on the Themes in Chapters 15-18. John D. Bransford, & Daniel L. Schwartz. To appear in A. Ericsson (Ed.), Handbook of Expertise.

Designs for Knowledge Evolution: Towards a prescriptive theory for integrating first- and second-hand knowledge . Daniel L. Schwartz, Taylor Martin, & Na’ilah Nasir. In P. Gardenfors & P. Johansson (Eds.), Cognition, Education, and Communication Technology.

Young Children’s Understanding of Animacy and Entertainment Robots. Sandra Okita, & Daniel L. Schwartz. In International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 3.

Spatial representations and imagery in learning. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Julie Heiser. In K. Sawywe (Ed.), Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp 283-298). Cambridge University Press.

Distributed learning and mutual adaptation. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Taylor Martin. Pragmatics & Cognition,14, 313-332.


Efficiency and Innovation in Transfer. Daniel L. Schwartz, David Sears, & John D. Bransford. In J. Mestre (Ed.), Transfer of learning from a modern multidisciplinary perspective (pp. 1 – 51). CT: Information Age Publishing.

How Mathematics Propels the Development of Physical Knowledge. Daniel L. Schwartz, Taylor Martin, & Jay Pfaffman. Journal of Cognition and Development.

Physically Distributed Learning: Adapting and Reinterpreting Physical Environments in the Development of Fraction Concepts.Taylor Martin, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Cognitive Science.

Learning by teaching: A new agent paradigm for educational software. Biswas, Schwartz, Leelawong, Vye, & TAG-V. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 19, 363-392.

Towards teacher’s adaptive metacognition. Xiaodong Lin, Daniel L. Schwartz, & Giyoo Hatano. Educational Psychologist, 40, 245-256.


Inventing to Prepare for Future Learning: The Hidden Efficiency of Encouraging Original Student Production in Statistics Instruction. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Taylor Martin. Cognition and Instruction.

Earlier Publications

The construction and analogical transfer of symbolic visualizations. Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, 1309-1325.

A time for telling. Daniel L. Schwartz, & John D. Bransford. Cognition & Instruction, 16, 475-522.

The productive agency that drives collaborative learning. Daniel L. Schwartz. Collaborative learning: Cognitive and computational approaches, pp. 197-218.

Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Daniel L. Schwartz, & John D. Bransford. Review of Research in Education, 24, 61-101.

Software for managing complex learning: An example from an educational psychology course. Daniel L. Schwartz, Sean Brophy, Xiaodong Lin, & John D. Bransford. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47, 39- 59.

The emergence of abstract representations in dyad problem solving. Daniel L. Schwartz. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4, 321-354.

Reflection at the crossroads of cultures. Xiaodong Lin, & Daniel L. Schwartz. Mind, Culture, & Activity.

Tool use and the effect of action on the imagination. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Douglas L. Holton. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Cognition, and Memory.26, 1655-1665.

Inferences through imagined actions: knowing by simulated doing. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Tamara Black. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 116-136.

The role of mathematics in explaining the material world: Mental models for proportional reasoning. Daniel L. Schwartz, & Joyce L. Moore. Cognitive Science, 22, 471-516.

Analog imagery in mental model reasoning: Depictive models. Daniel L. Schwartz, & John B. Black. Cognitive Psychology, 30, 154-219.

Shuttling between depictive models and abstract rules: Induction and fallback. Daniel L. Schwartz, & John B. Black. Cognitive Science, 20, 457-497.

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